# Process Costing In Management Accounting

It can be difficult to accurately assign costs to work in progress, for example. Process costing is an important product costing method for manufacturing companies that mass produce a large volume of similar products or units of output. Confirm that total costs to be accounted for equals total costs accounted for ; minor differences may occur due to rounding the cost per equivalent unit in step 3. Confirm that total costs to be accounted for equals total costs accounted for . Note that minor differences may occur due to rounding the cost per equivalent unit in step 3. Explain the concept of equivalent units assuming the weighted average method is used.

We aggregate all costs incurred through the manufacturing process. These costs include the cost of the WIP inventory at the beginning of the period and the period’s costs. We apply these over the inventory produced in the period and the equivalent units of the WIP at the end of the period. When we have a large mix of products, it can be hard to assign actual costs in a timely manner. In such cases, we can use standardized costs to calculate the total production cost for all units.

It is particularly used in environments where production passes through multiple cost centers. For example, production within a large corporation may require that product move through more than one department, such as procurement, manufacturing, quality assurance and distribution. Each of these departments has its own budget. Many companies use some type of system to determine the minimum value of produced products. Process costing is an allocation system companies use to allocate cost for homogeneous items produced by a company, explains Accounting Coach. Homogeneous products represent items that are very similar or indistinguishable from each other. Lumber, soda pop and chemical products are a few examples of homogeneous products.

## The Significance Of Management Accounting To Manufacturing Firms

A method of process costing that includes costs in beginning inventory and current period costs to establish an average cost per unit. Use four steps to assign costs to products using the weighted average method. Are calculated by multiplying the number of physical units on hand by the percentage of completion of the units. If the physical units are 100 percent complete, equivalent units will be the same as the physical units.

Describe the four key steps shown in a production cost report assuming the weighted average method is used. Kelley Paint Company uses the weighted average method to account for costs of production.

If Jennifer finds that job A required more labor hours than job B, it makes sense to assign more overhead costs to job a because it took more effort and therefore should be assigned more costs. Though it’s not a perfect allocation, it’s an accepted approach many companies use. The majority of companies produce more than one product, and they use process costing by making batches of identical products, or at least highly similar products.

You can allocate overhead costs based on a level of activity. The logic is that a business incurs costs based on activities like the number of labor hours worked, the total units produced, or the total miles driven. If Jennifer’s company doesn’t produce or sell anything during a particular month, many of our costs would not be incurred. Job costing, also known as job order costing, and process costing are cost accounting systems designed to help businesses keep track of all the costs they have to pay to produce a product or deliver a service. The type of costing method you use depends on the type of business you’re running.

For companies that make large volumes of homogeneous products, process costing is much simpler than job costing. It also enables companies to hone in on the cost of each stage in the manufacturing process and look for ways to reduce cost if necessary. Process costing can be time consuming, and it can be difficult to accurately assign product costs to each manufacturing stage and to work-in-progress items. Reams-a-Plenty makes paper products from wood pulp. Raw materials move through the production cycle in a continuous flow, ending with the production of identical packages of paper. Raw materials total \$50,000, or \$.33 per package. Conversion costs are \$100,000, or \$.67 per package, comprising \$70,000 in direct labor and \$30,000 for overhead, including maintenance expenses, insurance costs and electricity.

## Standard Cost

Calculate the equivalent units in the Quality Testing department for direct materials and direct labor. A total of 10,000 units of product remain in the Assembly department at the end of the year.

Companies that use process costing produce a single product, either on a continuous basis or for long periods. All the products that the company produces under process costing are the same. Though the overhead allocation process is the same, the types of overhead costs differ from one company to the next. ABC clothing for instance allocates the cost to lease its manufacturing facility based on the number of total clothing units produced.

Process Costing is a branch of operation costing. It’s an accounting methodology that accumulates the direct costs of a production process and allocates the indirect costs proportionally to all items produced within the same period. Process costing may allow non-production costs to be included in the total process cost. Including non-production costs will arbitrarily increase each item’s cost; this also increases the consumer product price.

• Before you can set up an effective job or processing costing system, you have to separate direct costs from indirect, or overhead costs.
• Just as shown with job costing, Hannah has to create a budget with assumptions about costs.
• Adding a process allows companies to produce slightly different goods or improve product quality.
• Process costing can be easier to use than other costing methods, and it can help companies zero in on areas for potential cost cutting.
• The different calculations are required for different cost accounting needs.
• Managers must carefully watch per unit costs on a daily basis through the production process, while at the same time dealing with materials and output in huge quantities.

Ann talks with the accountant at Desk Products, John Fuller, to investigate. Identify whether each company listed in the following would use job costing or process costing. A costing system used by companies that produce identical units of product in batches employing a consistent process. Because each job at Custom Furniture Company results in a unique product and has different material and labor requirements, the company uses a job costing system. The Internal Revenue Service requires all businesses that maintain an inventory to meticulously track and report its supply.

Their cotton shirts made with extra layers of fabric and reinforce stitching to prevent tearing but also help wick away moisture. Each job will have to be done differently to successfully complete it. Brainyard delivers data-driven insights and expert advice to help businesses discover, interpret and act on emerging opportunities and trends.

Describe the basic cost flow equation and explain how it is used to reconcile costs to be accounted for with costs accounted for. Products with a cost of \$6,400 are transferred from the Rolling department to the Packaging department. Products with a cost of \$5,500 are transferred from the Mixing department to the Rolling department. We split the cost between Finished Goods and Work in Progress based on the cost per unit and the respective unit volumes. We charge direct and indirect costs to the Process itself. Many organizations allow each of their departments to operate autonomously. For example, the procurement department will have policies and procedure that are completely unique and independent of those of the supply chain group.

## What Is Process Costing? Definition, Types And How To Use It

The IRS uses this information to accurately value the business so that tax estimates can be made. Tracking inventory can be a cumbersome task for very large corporations. This process can be simplified, however, through the implementation of a process costing system. As the ink cartridges move through other departments during the production period, different costs will be added to the total amount of costs incurred during production. A company that produces ink cartridges applies process costing through several departments. The first department—the design department—is where the overall shape, dimensions and other design elements of the cartridges are processed.

Which types of companies use a process costing system to account for product costs? Provide at least three examples of products that would require the use of a process costing system.

Describe the basic cost flow equation and explain how it is used to reconcile units to be accounted for with units accounted for. To apply this to the real world, let’s look at the enrollment data for Sierra College, a community college located near Sacramento, California. During a recent semester, the student headcount in a specific department at Sierra College was 8,190. Because a large number of students in the department were part time, the full-time equivalent number of students totaled 3,240. Direct materials totaling \$20,000—\$6,000 for the Mixing department, \$5,000 for the Rolling department, and \$9,000 for the Packaging department—are requisitioned and placed in production.

Direct materials are 80 percent complete and direct labor is 40 percent complete. Calculate the equivalent units in the Assembly department for direct materials and direct labor. Recall that Desk Products, Inc., has two departments—Assembly and Finishing. Although this chapter focuses on the Assembly department, the Finishing department would also use the four steps to determine product costs for completed units transferred out and ending WIP inventory. Table 4.2 “Production Information for Desk Products’ Assembly Department” presents information for the Assembly department at Desk Products for the month of May. Review this information carefully as it will be used to illustrate the four key steps. Job costing systems record revenues and costs for unique products; ones that can be easily distinguished from other products.

We estimate it based on historical cost data and apply it to production. At the end of the period, we compare the actual cost to the standard cost, and we charge the difference to a variance account. Can you imagine having to determine the cost of making just ONE lego when we can make 1.7 million legos per hour? Accountants compute the cost per unit by first accumulating costs for the entire period for each process or department. Second, they divide the accumulated costs by the number of units produced in that process or department. Both job and process cost systems have the same cost flows.

If you find that actual costing more than 10% higher than your budget, revisit your budget to determine whether or not your assumptions are reasonable. Process costing is a type of operation costing which is used to ascertain the cost of a product at each process or stage of manufacture.