Student engagement is linked to a number of academic outcomes, such as retention, grade point average, and graduation rates (Carini et al., 2006; Center for Postsecondary Research, 2016; Hu & McCormick, 2012). As a result, universities have shown a strong interest in how to increase student engagement, particularly given rising external pressures to improve learning outcomes and prepare students for academic success (Axelson & Flick, 2011; Kuh, 2009). Therefore, the primary purpose of our literature review was to explore whether technology influences student engagement. In the sections that follow, we provide an overview of the findings, an explanation of existing methodological limitations and areas for future research, and a list of best practices for integrating the technologies we reviewed into the teaching and learning process. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review on how computer-based technology influences student engagement within higher education settings. We focused on computer-based technology given the specific types of technologies (i.e., web-conferencing software, blogs, wikis, social networking sites, and digital games) that emerged from a broad search of the literature, which is described in more detail below.
Studies suggest that digital games positively affect student attitudes about learning, evident in student reports that games are fun, interesting, and enjoyable (Beckem & Watkins, 2012; Farley, 2013; Grimley et al., 2012; Hew et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2011; Zimmermann, 2013), which may account for higher levels of student motivation in courses that offered digital games. While voluntary participation in Facebook activities may be lower than desired or expected (Dyson, Vickers, Turtle, Cowan, & Tassone, 2015; Fagioli et al., 2015; Naghdipour & Eldridge, 2016; Rambe, 2012), students seem to have a clear preference for Facebook compared to other instructional tools (Clements, 2015; DiVall & Kirwin, 2012; Hurt et al., 2012; Hou et al., 2015; Kent, 2013).
To access articles published in the current year, select CURRENT on the top line of any page. To access articles from previous years, select ARCHIVES. For supported data repositories a repository banner will automatically appear next to your published article on ScienceDirect. Include interactive data visualizations in your publication and let your readers interact and engage more closely with your research. Follow the instructions here to find out about available data visualization options and how to include them with your article. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.
Supplementary material such as applications, images and sound clips, can be published with your article to enhance it. Submitted supplementary items are published exactly as they are received . Please submit your material together with the article and supply a concise, descriptive caption for each supplementary file. If you wish to make changes to supplementary material during any stage of the process, please make sure to provide an updated file. Do not annotate any corrections on a previous version. Please switch off the ‘Track Changes’ option in Microsoft Office files as these will appear in the published version.
To facilitate reproducibility and data reuse, this journal also encourages you to share your software, code, models, algorithms, protocols, methods and other useful materials related to the project. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list . Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either ‘Unpublished results’ or ‘Personal communication’. Citation of a reference as ‘in press’ implies that the item has been accepted for publication. Studies also show mixed results for the use of Twitter to promote interactions with peers and instructors.
Finally, cognitive indicators drew the fewest amount of studies, which suggests that research is needed to determine whether technologies affect these indicators. Studies on web-conferencing and cognitive engagement are more conclusive than those for behavioral engagement, although are fewer in number. Findings suggest that students who participated in web-conferencing demonstrated critical reflection and enhanced learning through interactions with others (Armstrong & Thornton, 2012), higher-order thinking (e.g., problem-solving, synthesis, evaluation) in response to challenging assignments , and motivation to learn, particularly when using polling features (Hudson et al., 2012). There is only one study examining how web-conferencing affects emotional engagement, although it is positive suggesting that students who participated in web-conferences had higher levels of interest in course content than those who did not (Francescucci & Foster, 2013). One possible reason for the positive cognitive and emotional engagement findings may be that web-conferencing software provides many features that promote active learning.
Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect to all people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equal opportunities. Content should make no assumptions about the beliefs or commitments of any reader; contain nothing which might imply that one individual is superior to another on the grounds of age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition; and use inclusive language throughout. Authors should ensure that writing is free from bias, stereotypes, slang, reference to dominant culture and/or cultural assumptions. We advise to seek gender neutrality by using plural nouns (“clinicians, patients/clients”) as default/wherever possible to avoid using “he, she,” or “he/she.” We recommend avoiding the use of descriptors that refer to personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability or health condition unless they are relevant and valid. When coding terminology is used, we recommend to avoid offensive or exclusionary terms such as “master”, “slave”, “blacklist” and “whitelist”.
- One set of definitions refer to student engagement as a desired outcome reflective of a student’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors about learning.
- Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.
- We focused on computer-based technology given the specific types of technologies (i.e., web-conferencing software, blogs, wikis, social networking sites, and digital games) that emerged from a broad search of the literature, which is described in more detail below.
- Overall, the findings provide preliminary support that computer-based technology influences student engagement, however, additional research is needed to confirm and build on these findings.
- The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions.
- For example, Trowler defined student engagement as “the interaction between the time, effort and other relevant resources invested by both students and their institutions intended to optimize the student experience and enhance the learning outcomes and development of students and the performance, and reputation of the institution” (p. 2).
If your research article is accepted, your data article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed, published open access and linked to your research article on ScienceDirect. Please note an open access fee is payable for publication in Data in Brief. Full details can be found on the Data in Brief website.
• Ensure that color images are accessible to all, including those with impaired color vision. • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author and year. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.
Web-conferencing software and Facebook also yielded the most positive findings, influencing four of the seven indicators of student engagement, compared to other collaborative technologies, such as blogs, wikis, and Twitter. Web-conferencing software was unique due to the sheer number of collaborative features it offers, providing multiple ways for students to actively engage with course content and interact with peers and the instructor (Bower, 2011; Hudson et al., 2012; Martin et al., 2012; McBrien et al., 2009); this may account for the effects on multiple indicators of student engagement. Wikis had the lowest influence on student engagement, with mixed findings regarding behavioral engagement, limited, but conclusive findings, regarding one indicator of cognitive engagement , and no studies pertaining to other indicators of cognitive engagement or emotional engagement. Facebook is a web-based service that allows users to create a public or private profile and invite others to connect.
Share This Article
In addition, further research is needed to clarify findings regarding how wikis and Twitter influence interaction and how blogs and Facebook influence deep processing of information. Future research studies should include justifications for the pedagogical use of specific technologies and detailed instructions for learning activities to minimize adverse findings from poor instructional design and to encourage replication. The literature on blogs and cognitive engagement is less consistent. Some studies suggest that blogs may help students engage in active learning, problem-solving, and reflection (Chawinga, 2017; Chu et al., 2012; Ivala & Gachago, 2012; Mansouri & Piki, 2016), while other studies suggest that students’ blog posts show very little evidence of higher-order thinking (Dos & Demir, 2013; Sharma & Tietjen, 2016). The inconsistency in findings may be due to the wording of blog instructions. Students may not necessarily demonstrate or engage in deep processing of information unless explicitly instructed to do so.
Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions on the program or type of grants and awards. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding. Journal Self-citation is defined as the number of citation from a journal citing article to articles published by the same journal. This indicator counts the number of citations received by documents from a journal and divides them by the total number of documents published in that journal.
Q1 comprises the quarter of the journals with the highest values, Q2 the second highest values, Q3 the third highest values and Q4 the lowest values. Dummies has always stood for taking on complex concepts and making them easy to understand. Dummies helps everyone be more knowledgeable and confident in applying what they know. Whether it’s to pass that big test, qualify for that big promotion or even master that cooking technique; people who rely on dummies, rely on it to learn the critical skills and relevant information necessary for success.
This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of one independent expert reviewer to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all of the journal’s usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups.
Consent For Publication
Please check the relevant section in this Guide for Authors for more details. Not every article in a journal is considered primary research and therefore “citable”, this chart shows the ratio of a journal’s articles including substantial research in three year windows vs. those documents other than research articles, reviews and conference papers.
Summary Of Findings
The SJR is a size-independent prestige indicator that ranks journals by their ‘average prestige per article’. It is based on the idea that ‘all citations are not created equal’. SJR is a measure of scientific influence of journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from It measures the scientific influence of the average article in a journal, it expresses how central to the global scientific discussion an average article of the journal is. This research was supported in part by a Laureate Education, Incl.
For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals. Unless you have written permission from the patient , the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials must be removed before submission. Be mindful of privacy, security, and accessibility issues. Instructors also made efforts to increase accessibility of web-conferencing software by including a phone number for students unable to access audio or video through their computer and by recording and archiving sessions for students unable to attend due to pre-existing conflicts (Andrew et al., 2015; Martin et al., 2012). In the future, instructors should also keep in mind that some technologies, like Facebook and Twitter, are not accessible to students living in China; therefore, alternative arrangements may need to be made.
For example, whiteboards and breakout rooms provide opportunities for real-time, collaborative problem-solving activities and discussions. However, additional studies are needed to isolate and compare specific web-conferencing features to determine which have the greatest effect on student engagement. Studies that examine the influence of Facebook on behavioral engagement focus both on participation in learning activities and interaction with peers and instructors. In most studies, Facebook activities were voluntary and participation rates ranged from 16 to 95%, with an average of rate of 47% (Bahati, 2015; Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014; Fagioli, Rios-Aguilar, & Deil-Amen, 2015; Rambe, 2012; Staines & Lauchs, 2013).
Please ensure that the words ‘this issue’ are added to any references in the list to other articles in the same Special Issue. Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.). You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor, if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source had no such involvement then this should be stated. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted.
Users may build social, academic, and professional connections by posting messages in various media formats (i.e., text, pictures, videos) and commenting on, liking, and reacting to others’ messages (Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Maben, Edwards, & Malone, 2014; Hou et al., 2015). Within an educational context, Facebook has often been used as a supplementary instructional tool to lectures or LMSs to support class discussions or develop, deliver, and share academic content and resources.
When available, you can directly link your dataset to your article by providing the relevant information in the submission system. For more information, visit the database linking page.
Find out how you can share your research published in Elsevier journals. Ratio of a journal’s items, grouped in three years windows, that have been cited at least once vs. those not cited during the following year. The set of journals have been ranked according to their SJR and divided into four equal groups, four quartiles.