# How To Calculate The Effective Interest Rate For Discounted Bonds

Given these facts, the purchaser would be willing to pay \$10,000, or the face value of the bond, as both the coupon interest rate and the market interest rate were the same. The total cash paid to investors over the life of the bonds is \$20,000, \$10,000 of principal at maturity and \$10,000 (\$500 × 20 periods) in interest throughout the life of the bonds.

The investors want to earn a higher effective interest rate on these bonds, so they only pay \$950,000 for the bonds. The \$50,000 amount is recorded in a Discount on Bonds Payable contra liability account. Over time, the balance in this account is reduced as more of it is recognized as interest expense.

## Discount On Bonds Payable With Straight

The number of interest payments per year is two, and there are 10 total interest payments over the life of the bond. In this example, the current market interest rate is 12 percent.

And, mathematically, that extra \$2,200 is exactly equal to interest at 6 percent per year. As part of the bond issuance process, the issuer sets a coupon rate keeping in view the current market interest rate and its assessment of the credit risk of the bond. However, market interest rates are volatile, and the credit risk assessment might be different from the default premium investors require in the market. When the bond matures, the business must record the repayment of the principal to the bondholder, as well as all final interest payments.

At this time, the discount on bond payable and bond payable accounts must be zeroed out, and all cash payments must be recorded. When a business issues a bond, it participates in three types of transactions. Finally, it pays off the obligation by repaying the face amount and the last interest payment. Each of these transactions must be recorded in the company’s financial records with a series of journal entries.

## What Is The Amortization Of Discount On Bonds Payable?

Having a registered bond allows the owner to automatically receive the interest payments when they are made. Discounts also occur when the bond supply exceeds demand when the bond’s credit rating is lowered, or when the perceived risk of default increases. Conversely, falling interest rates or an improved credit rating may cause a bond to trade at a premium. Interest and Long-Term Bonds in Cash Flow Statement under S,Nurnberg, H. The CPA Journal, 60, 50.This article explains how the Statement of Financial Accounting Standard requires companies to provide cash flow statements for every period and include the results of every operation. The straight-line method does not reflect the reality of the transaction.

• To get the bond discount rate, work it out as a percentage, which will be the bond discount divided by its face value.
• Bond discount is the difference between the face value of a bond and the price it sells for.
• If the bond’s stated interest rate is greater than those expected by the current bond market, this bond will be an attractive option for investors.
• Discount amortizations are likely to be reviewed by a company’s auditors, and so should be carefully documented.
• However, unlike with a bond sold at a discount, the process of amortizing the premium will decrease the bond’s interest expense recorded on the issuing company’s financial records.
• To calculate the amortization rate of the bond premium, a company generally divides the bond premium amount by the number of interest payments that will be made during the term of the bond.

While the business may not make periodic interest payments, interest income is still generated. The interest income is merely accumulated and paid at the end of the bond’s term.

To calculate the bond discount rate, you’ll need to know the current value of the bond’s principal, the current value of the interest payments, and the face value of the bond. First, calculate the bond’s market price by adding the current values of the interest payments to the principal. Then, subtract the face value from the market price you just worked out. To get the bond discount rate, work it out as a percentage, which will be the bond discount divided by its face value.

## What Is A Bond Discount?

The carrying value will continue to increase as the discount balance decreases with amortization. When the bond matures, the discount will be zero and the bond’s carrying value will be the same as its principal amount. The discount amortized for the last payment may be slightly different based on rounding.

This means Lighting Process, Inc. will repay the principal amount of \$10,000 at maturity in ten years and will pay \$500 interest (\$10,000 × 10% coupon interest rate × 6/ 12) every six months. The price of the bonds is based on the present value of these future cash flows. The principal and interest amounts are based on the face amounts of the bond while the present value factors used to calculate the value of the bond at issuance are based on the market interest rate of 10%.

Prepare journal entries for a zero-coupon bond using the effective rate method. The bond premium causes the interest expense to be lower than the interest payment such that the effective rate of interest is lower than the coupon rate. When a bond is sold at a premium, the difference between the sales price and face value of the bond must be amortized over the bond’s term. The amortization rate for the bond’s discount balance is calculated by dividing the discount amount by the number of periods the company has to pay interest. To record interest paid on a bond issued at par value, debit the amount paid to the bond interest expense account and credit the same amount to the cash account. These unsecured bonds require the bondholders to rely on the good name and financial stability of the issuing company for repayment of principal and interest amounts. A subordinated debenture bond means the bond is repaid after other unsecured debt, as noted in the bond agreement.

The following T-account shows how the balance in Discount on Bonds Payable will be decreasing over the 5-year life of the bond. Based in the Kansas City area, Mike specializes in personal finance and business topics. He has been writing since 2009 and has been published by “Quicken,” “TurboTax,” and “The Motley Fool.”

Bonds trade at a discount to par value for a number of reasons. Bonds on the secondary market with fixed coupons will trade at discounts when market interest rates rise. While the investor receives the same coupon, the bond is discounted to match prevailing market yields. The primary features of a bond are its coupon rate, face value, and market price. An issuer makes coupon payments to its bondholders as compensation for the money loaned over a fixed period. If a bond’s coupon rate is set higher than the expected rate of return, the demand for bond will be higher and it can be sold at a price higher than the par value.

## Face Value Of Bond

In most cases, it is the investor’s decision to convert the bonds to stock, although certain types of convertible bonds allow the issuing company to determine if and when bonds are converted. Over the life of the bonds, the initial debit balance in Discount on Bonds Payable will decrease as it is amortized to Bond Interest Expense. First you need to know the present value of the principal of the bond. Also, you need to know the present value of the interest payments. A zero-coupon bond is one that does not make ongoing interest payment to the bondholder over the term of the bond. See Table 3 for interest expense and carrying value calculations over the life of the bond using the straight‐line method of amortization . The journal entries for the remaining years will be similar if all of the bonds remain outstanding.

The business will then need to record a “bond premium” for the difference between the amount of cash the business received and the bonds’ face value. When the bond is issued, the company must record a liability called “bond payable.

The bond’s term is used as the time period in the present value calculation. When the bond is paid off, the company must record two transactions. First, it must record any final interest payments that are made. This is done by debiting the bond payable account and crediting the cash account for the full book value of the bond. To record a bond issued at par value, credit the “bond payable” liability account for the total face value of the bonds and debit cash for the same amount.

In order to calculate how the amount of the bond discount, you need to need to calculate the present value of the principal and the present value of the coupon payments. The sum of the present value of coupon payments and principal is the market price of the bond.

## 3 Accounting For Zero

The discount of \$3,851 is treated as an additional interest expense over the life of the bonds. When the same amount of bond discount is recorded each year, it is referred to as straight-line amortization. In this example, the straight-line amortization would be \$770.20 (\$3,851 divided by the 5-year life of the bond).

The corporation decides to sell the 9% bond rather than changing the bond documents to the market interest rate. Since the corporation is selling its 9% bond in a bond market which is demanding 10%, the corporation will receive less than the bond’s face amount. Assume the investors pay \$9,800,000 for the bonds having a face or maturity value of \$10,000,000. The difference of \$200,000 will be recorded by the issuing corporation as a debit to Discount on Bonds Payable, a debit to Cash for \$9,800,000, and a credit to Bonds Payable for \$10,000,000.

A premium or discount bonus sold above the amortized is subjected to tax no matter the original cost. Bonds that are sold below the amortized costs incur losses, and because of this, an essential concept of the exchange of taxes is utilized to avoid capital gains of the bonds. Exchange of taxes means that there are commercial ties with the losses of the same type of bonds to ensure the recognition of tax loss for purposes of income tax.