# How To Calculate Straight Line Depreciation Formula

Depreciation is an expense, just like any other business write-off. So you’ll want to make sure you calculate depreciation properly.

Let’s break down how you can calculate straight-line depreciation step-by-step. We’ll use an office copier as an example asset for calculating the straight-line depreciation rate. You will find the depreciation expense used for each period until the value of the asset declines to its salvage value. The method is called “straight line” because the formula, when laid out on a graph, creates a straight, downward trend, with the same rate of loss per year. There are good reasons for using both of these methods, and the right one depends on the asset type in question. The straight-line depreciation method is the easiest to use, so it makes for simplified accounting calculations.

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They have estimated the useful life of the machine to be 8 years with a salvage value of \$ 2,000. Below, we’ve provided you with some straight line depreciation examples. Here are some reasons your small business should use straight line depreciation. Looking for the best tips, tricks, and guides to help you accelerate your business?

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• It is calculated by simply dividing the cost of an asset, less its salvage value, by the useful life of the asset.
• The salvage value is the amount the asset is worth at the end of its useful life.
• However, the straight line method does not accurately reflect the difference in usage of an asset and may not be the most appropriate value calculation method for some depreciable assets.
• Depreciation is a way to account for the reduction of an asset’s value as a result of using the asset over time.
• Learn accounting fundamentals and how to read financial statements with CFI’s free online accounting classes.

A depreciation schedule is required in financial modeling to link the three financial statements in Excel. Subtract the estimated salvage value of the asset from the cost of the asset to get the total depreciable amount.

It’s the simplest and most commonly used depreciation method when calculating this type of expense on an income statement, and it’s the easiest to learn. Its assets include Land, building, machinery, and equipment; all of them are reported at costs. Because Sara’s copier’s useful life is five years, she would divide 1 into 5 in order to determine its annual depreciation rate. Using the facts and circumstances presented, we can use LeaseQuery’s present value calculator to calculate the present value of the lease payments. This is the value we will record for the ROU asset and what will be depreciated. In order to do so, input annual payments of \$100,000, a 10 year lease term, and a 4% discount rate.

## Sample Full Depreciation Schedule

This method first requires the business to estimate the total units of production the asset will provide over its useful life. Then a depreciation amount per unit is calculated by dividing the cost of the asset minus its salvage value over the total expected units the asset will produce. Each period the depreciation per unit rate is multiplied by the actual units produced to calculate the depreciation expense.

Accumulated DepreciationThe accumulated depreciation of an asset is the amount of cumulative depreciation charged on the asset from its purchase date until the reporting date. It is a contra-account, the difference between the asset’s purchase price and its carrying value on the balance sheet. Carrying ValueCarrying value is the book value of assets in a company’s balance sheet, computed as the original cost less accumulated depreciation/impairments. It is calculated for intangible assets as the actual cost less amortization expense/impairments. Balance SheetA balance sheet is one of the financial statements of a company that presents the shareholders’ equity, liabilities, and assets of the company at a specific point in time.

## What Is The Straight Line Depreciation Method?

If you don’t expect the asset to be worth much at the end of its useful life, be sure to figure that into the calculation. Product Reviews Unbiased, expert reviews on the best software and banking products for your business. As you can see from the amortization table, this continues until the end of Year 10, at which point the total asset and liability balances are \$0. Further, the full value of the asset resides in the accumulated depreciation account as a credit. Combining the total asset and accumulated depreciation amounts equals a net book value of \$0.

## Final Thoughts On Straight Line Depreciation

For example, due to rapid technological advancements, a straight line depreciation method may not be suitable for an asset such as a computer. It would be inaccurate to assume a computer would incur the same depreciation expense over its entire useful life. The straight line method of depreciation is the simplest method of depreciation. Using this method, the cost of a tangible asset is expensed by equal amounts each period over its useful life.

• Note that the straight depreciation calculations should always start with 1.
• Depreciation expense is the recognition of the reduction of value of an asset over its useful life.
• As you can see from the amortization table, this continues until the end of Year 10, at which point the total asset and liability balances are \$0.
• This method is useful for assets that depreciate quickly after purchase, like computers, which lose their value very quickly, even though they might operate well for a long time.
• Each of those \$1,600 charges would be balanced against a contra account under property, plant, and equipment on the balance sheet.

Depreciation generally applies to an entity’s owned fixed assets or to its right-of-use assets arising from finance leases for lessees. Accountants use the straight line depreciation method because it is the easiest to compute and can be applied to all long-term assets. However, the straight line method does not accurately reflect the difference in usage of an asset and may not be the most appropriate value calculation method for some depreciable assets. Each of those \$1,600 charges would be balanced against a contra account under property, plant, and equipment on the balance sheet.

## Straight Line Depreciation Video

Before you can calculate depreciation of any kind, you must first determine the useful life of the asset you wish to depreciate. Straight-line depreciation is very commonly used by businesses, because it is fairly easy. Because the useful life and the salvage value are both based on expectation, the depreciation can be very inaccurate. Moreover, this method does not factor in loss in the short-term and the maintaining cost, which can also render many inaccuracies. Because this method is the most universally used, we will present a full example of how to account for straight-line depreciation expense on a finance lease later in our article. With this cancellation, the copier’s annual depreciation expense would be \$1320. When you calculate the cost of an asset to depreciate, be sure to include any related costs.

The most common types of depreciation methods include straight-line, double declining balance, units of production, and sum of years digits. Once calculated, depreciation expense is recorded in the accounting records as a debit to the depreciation expense account and a credit to the accumulated depreciation account. Accumulated depreciation is a contra asset account, which means that it is paired with and reduces the fixed asset account. Accumulated depreciation is eliminated from the accounting records when a fixed asset is disposed of.

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This method is used with assets that quickly lose value early in their useful life. A company may also choose to go with this method if it offers them tax or cash flow advantages. The carrying value would be \$200 on the balance sheet at the end of three years. The depreciation expense would be completed under the straight line depreciation method, and management would retire the asset. The sale price would find its way back to cash and cash equivalents.

## Step 2: Find And Subtract Any Salvage Value From The Asset’s Cost

According to the table above, Jim can depreciate the tractor over a three-year period. In a nutshell, the depreciation method used depends on the nature of the assets in question, as well as the company’s preference. Divide the estimated useful life into 1 to arrive at the straight-line depreciation rate. Determine the initial cost of the asset that has been recognized as a fixed asset.

Each person should consult his or her own attorney, business advisor, or tax advisor with respect to matters referenced in this post. Bench assumes no liability for actions taken in reliance upon the information contained herein. According to straight-line depreciation, your MacBook will depreciate \$300 every year. Its scrap or salvage value of the asset—the price you think you can sell it for at the end of its useful life. Excel Shortcuts PC Mac List of Excel Shortcuts Excel shortcuts – It may seem slower at first if you’re used to the mouse, but it’s worth the investment to take the time and…

## Straight Line Depreciation

You can then record your depreciation expense to the general ledger while crediting the accumulated depreciation contra-account for the monthly depreciation expense total. There are a lot of reasons businesses choose to use the straight line depreciation method. Thus, the depreciation expense in the income statement remains the same for a particular asset over the period. As such, the income statement is expensed evenly, so is the value of the asset on the balance sheet. The carrying amount of the asset on the balance sheet reduces by the same amount.

Posted on Posted on: 05.10.2023Categories Income Statement