How Inventory Is Valued
The layer cost update feature is intended to be used sparingly to correct a transaction costing error affecting items in subinventory. If the cost error is in WIP, the impacted quantities will need to be returned to a subinventory, corrected there, then reissued to WIP after the update has been completed.
Under FIFO/LIFO cost systems, the unit cost of an item is the value of one receipt in one layer, selected by the FIFO or the LIFO rule. Each receipt or assembly completion creates either a new layer for each organization. For a specified job number, you can view all the material operation requirements by item, by operation.
First-In, First-Out (FIFO)
The layer cost worker uses the FIFO rule to select the appropriate inventory layer from the specified job to determine the amount to credit inventory. The same cost worker calculates the debit to the WIP valuation accounts as a reversal to the latest (most recent) completion(s). If you move assemblies into the scrap intraoperation step of an operation and the WIP Require Scrap Account parameter is set, you must enter a scrap account number or account alias.
You can charge overheads directly based on move transactions or based on resource charges. For overhead charges based on move transactions with a basis of item, WIP automatically charges overheads upon completion of each assembly in the operation. WIP automatically reverses these charges during a backward move transaction. Issue transactions increase the WIP valuation and decrease the inventory valuation. Components issued to or returned from jobs are valued at the inventory layer cost in effect at the time of the transaction.
If you do not specify that a scrap account is required, then it is optional. If you do not provide a scrap account, then the cost of scrap remains in the job or schedule until job or period close. If the job is then completed using the final completion option in the Completion Transactions window, then the cost is included in the finished assembly cost.
If a component’s unit cost is composed of more than one cost element, then this elemental detail continues to be visible after it is charged to a job. When the final completion option is used for an assembly completion, no residual balance, positive or negative, is left in the job. The accounting entries are different for positive and negative residual balances.
What is the meaning of inventory valuation?
Inventory valuation is the cost associated with an entity’s inventory at the end of a reporting period. It forms a key part of the cost of goods sold calculation, and can also be used as collateral for loans. This valuation appears as a current asset on the entity’s balance sheet.
- You can receive purchased items associated with outside resources from an outside processing operation back into WIP in Oracle Purchasing.
- For these items, WIP creates resource transactions at the standard or actual rate for all outside resources with an autocharge type of PO receipt or PO move.
Components issued to a job or returned from a job in several different transactions may have different unit costs for each transaction. If a component’s unit cost is composed of more than one cost element, this elemental detail continues to be visible after it is charged to a job. Component items can be defined as push or pull requirements on your jobs. Components issued to jobs are valued at the inventory layer cost in effect at the time of the transaction. Components issued to a job in several different transactions may have different unit costs for each transaction.
A perpetual costing method is selected for each inventory organization including Standard costing, Weighted Average costing, FIFO costing, or LIFO costing. Inventory balances and values are updated perpetually after each transaction is sequentially costed.
Positive residual balances post to inventory and negative residual balances post to variance. Therefore, transactions per given element may have balances going to inventory and variance for the same element, at different levels. Use the Completion Transactions or the WIP Move window in WIP or the Inventory Transaction Interface to receive completed assemblies from WIP into asset subinventories. Completion transactions relieve the valuation account of the accounting class and charge the Inventory Valuation accounts based upon the Cost Source. If a scrap account is entered, then the cost of scrapped assemblies is determined using an algorithm that calculates the assembly costs through the operation at which the scrap occurred.
The WIP Require Scrap Account parameter determines how assembly scrap is handled. If you enter a scrap account as you move assemblies into scrap, then the transaction is costed by an algorithm that calculates the cost of each assembly through the operation at which the scrap occurred. The scrap account is debited, and the job elemental accounts are credited.
You can receive purchased items associated with outside resources from an outside processing operation back into WIP in Oracle Purchasing. For these items, WIP creates resource transactions at the standard or actual rate for all outside resources with an autocharge type of PO receipt or PO move. FIFO/LIFO costing is processed at the inventory organizational level.
When you select a component which has been issued to the job, you can view WIP layers related to the issues with the quantity issued and relieved in the detail block. Quantity relieved represents the total of components reliefs due to assembly completions and scrap transactions. If you select Use Actual Resources, then the unit cost to be relieved from the job is calculated based on actual job charges and is charged to inventory as each unit is completed. This algorithm costs the completions using a prorated amount of actual resources charged to the job and material usages as defined on the assembly bill, multiplied by the layer costs in the job.
The scrap account is then debited; the job elemental accounts are credited. The scrap calculation uses jog requirements, rather than cost incurred. If you move assemblies out of a scrap operation step, therefore reversing the ordinal scrap transaction, these accounting entries are reversed.
If you do not enter a scrap account, the cost of scrap remains in the job. If the job is then completed using the final completion option in the Completion Transactions window, the cost is included in the finished assembly cost. Otherwise, the cost is written off as a variance when the nonstandard asset and standard discrete jobs are closed and when nonstandard expense jobs are closed for the period. For assembly completions, the material overhead amount earned is added to the cost of the completion in inventory, but is never charged to the job. First In, First Out (FIFO) and Last In, First Out (LIFO) are two separate perpetual costing methods based on actual costs.
Otherwise, the cost is written off as a variance when the non-standard asset and standard discrete jobs are closed and at period close for non-standard expense jobs. WIP automatically charges appropriate overhead costs as you move assemblies through the shop floor.