# Economic Order Quantity Eoq

The EOQ helps companies minimize the cost of ordering and holding inventory. As explained by the economic concept known as economies of scale, the cost per unit of ordering a product falls, the larger the total quantity of the order. However, the larger the total quantity of an order, the higher the cost to hold and carry your inventory. The EOQ is a company’s optimal order quantity that minimizes its total costs related to ordering, receiving, and holding inventory. These tools can help them optimize inventory management and facilitate their growth.

The EOQ formula shouldn’t be taken as gospel, but it’s a useful tool for informed, effective inventory control. This refers to all the costs that are involved in storing or handling the items in your store or warehouse.

## Automate Eoq Calculations With Inventory Management Software

Businesses that follow EOQ look at all costs related to purchasing and delivery while also factoring in demand for the product, purchase discounts and holding costs. Economic order quantity is a calculation companies perform that represents their ideal order size, allowing them to meet demand without overspending. Inventory managers calculate EOQ to minimize holding costs and excess inventory. The goal of the EOQ formula is to identify the optimal number of product units to order. If achieved, a company can minimize its costs for buying, delivering, and storing units.

By calculating EOQ, you’re able to make better decisions on how much product to order in a given period of time. The EOQ formula is the square root of (2 x 1,000 pairs x \$2 order cost) / (\$5 holding cost) or 28.3 with rounding. The ideal order size to minimize costs and meet customer demand is slightly more than 28 pairs of jeans. A more complex portion of the EOQ formula provides the reorder point. The EOQ formula is best applied in situations where demand, ordering, and holding costs remain constant over time. It’s common for holding costs to be about 25% of the value of the inventory, so sometimes businesses will default to somewhere between 20%-30% of the inventory value for their holding costs.

Additionally, the EOQ model reduces the chance of inventory shortages which can lead to unrealized losses. When a business runs out of items, they don’t just lose out on potential sales. They run the risk of losing customers to competitors resulting in missed future sales too. In North America in 2020, products that were not available in stores led to a sales loss of \$71.4 billion. The widget company also determined, based on historic data, that the cost of holding one widget in storage for a year is \$0.20 per widget. The economic order quantity is the order quantity that minimizes total holding and ordering costs for the year.

• Economies of scope is an economic concept that refers to the decrease in the total cost of production when a range of products are produced together rather than separately.
• It’s a great way to grasp how much product needs to be purchased to maintain an efficient ecommerce supply chain while keeping costs down.
• Brainyard delivers data-driven insights and expert advice to help businesses discover, interpret and act on emerging opportunities and trends.
• If you order too little, you won’t be able to meet your customers’ needs.

Economic order quantity tells businesses the ideal order size for every product they buy. The EOQ formula assumes annual demand for a product is relatively flat. If you are in a growing business, EOQ may not be the best way to calculate your order size, as those numbers could change frequently. Instead of manually checking inventory levels to reorder products, you can set automatic reorder points that automatically place an order once your inventory levels hit a certain threshold. Investing in an inventory management software or partnering with a 3PL) makes this easy to do. The EOQ formula helps calculate the optimal order quantity to save money on logistics and ecommerce warehousing costs.

If the company runs out of inventory, there is a shortage cost, which is the revenue lost because the company has insufficient inventory to fill an order. An inventory shortage may also mean the company loses the customer or the client will order less in the future.

When reordering products, many businesses place orders based on what they need at the exact moment rather than using a reorder quantity formula. Instead, they should optimize the way they order and pay for product by using the Economic Order Quantity formula . Economies of scope is an economic concept that refers to the decrease in the total cost of production when a range of products are produced together rather than separately.

Once you get the variables from your inventory management system, it’s easy to plug in the numbers and calculate EOQ. When you use a robust ERP, these calculations may all be handled for you, including order costs like inventory ordering costs, holding costs and stock out costs. Economic order quantity is the ideal order quantity a company should purchase to minimize inventory costs such as holding costs, shortage costs, and order costs.

## Why Do You Need The Economic Order Quantity Formula?

The EOQ formula determines a company’s inventory reorder point. When inventory falls to a certain level, the EOQ formula, if applied to business processes, triggers the need to place an order for more units. By determining a reorder point, the business avoids running out of inventory and can continue to fill customer orders.

This prevents you from carrying too much deadstock or facing stockouts. Economic order quantity is a useful formula for businesses of all sizes and types that order and hold inventory. Amount of inventory instead of guessing what to order, you can reduce costs, prevent stockouts, and keep your supply chain operating smoothly. Also referred to as ‘setup cost,’ how much does an order cost per purchase?

## Economic Order Quantity Eoq Model: Inventory Management Models : A Tutorial

The Economic Order Quantity is the number of units that a company should add to inventory with each order to minimize the total costs of inventory—such as holding costs, order costs, and shortage costs. The EOQ provides a model for calculating the appropriate reorder point and the optimal reorder quantity to ensure the instantaneous replenishment of inventory with no shortages. EOQ applies only when demand for a product is constant over the year and each new order is delivered in full when inventory reaches zero. There is a fixed cost for each order placed, regardless of the number of units ordered; an order is assumed to contain only 1 unit.

However, as the size of inventory grows, the cost of holding the inventory rises. EOQ is the exact point that minimizes both of these inversely related costs. EOQ calculations are rarely as simple as this example shows. Here the intent is to explain the main principle of the formula. EOQ takes into account the timing of reordering, the cost incurred to place an order, and the cost to store merchandise.

## Minimize Inventory Costs

Calculating economic order quantity is easy if you only have to calculate the EOQ of one product. However, when you’re dealing with many products, calculating EOQ can be time-consuming and prone to human error. Whether you sell five or 50,000 products, QuickBooks Enterprise puts the tools you need for efficient, profitable inventory management right at your fingertips. Economic order quantity helps your business determine the ideal order size for any product. For example, if you run a retail, restaurant, wholesale or manufacturing business, EOQ can help you optimize order sizes to maximize profits. Once you work through EOQ, you should know the optimal number of orders per year and the ideal order size.

## Other Factors That Can Optimize Inventory

This is done on a per-order basis and includes both the shipping and handling costs. Additionally, the economic order interval can be determined from the EOQ and the economic production quantity model can be determined in a similar fashion.

## Order Costs

If you don’t know or have inventory that’s been selling for less than a year, there are several forecasting tools you can use. The economic order quantity, also called optimal order quantity, is the optimal number of products a business should include per order to reduce order costs, shortage costs, and storage costs. Mathematically, the point at which the two costs are minimized is the point at which the two costs are equal. Calculating the EOQ for your business helps you find a good balance for your order and inventory costs, which are easy to overlook in day-to-day business.

To best understand how economic order quantity works, here’s an example. Let’s say a business uses its ERP platform to determine demand, order cost and holding costs per unit, per year over the last year and expects similar demand next year. Economic Order Quantity may not consider all the factors that affect each business, but it is still a powerful tool to help an entrepreneur or manager to make more calculated decisions. What makes the EOQ a compelling tool is that it is dynamic and can be revisited from time to time as your business grows.